51 Most Important Points | A Civil Engineer Must Know | Basic Things A Civil Engineer Should Know | Basics of Civil Engineering

In this Article today we will talk about the 51 Most important Points A Civil Engineer Must Know | Basic Things A Civil Engineer Should Know  | Basics of Civil Engineering | Basic Knowledge about Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Construction Basic Knowledge

51 Most Important Points for Civil Engineers:

In this post, We will know about some basic knowledge for civil engineering construction must know.

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51 Most Important Points for Civil Engineers | Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge

Basic Knowledge For Civil Engineer:

Following are few General Points for the Civil Engineer to remember to make the construction work easier while maintaining the quality of work.

Basics of Civil Engineering:

  1. Height of building = 3.15m.
  2. Height of Parapet wall should be 1m.
  3. Height of window = 2.1m.
  4. Minimum thickness of slab = 125mm.
  5. Minimum thickness of lintel = 15cm.
  6. Thickness of DPC = 2.5cm.
  7. Maximum diameter of the bars used for lapping is 36mm. Bars having more than this diameter are not allowed.
  8. Minimum diameter of bars used in Slab = 8mm.
  9. Minimum diameter of bars used in Column = 12mm.
  10. Minimum number of bars used in Square or Rectangular Column = 4 bars.
  11. Minimum number of bars used in Circular Column = bars.
  12. Maximum diameter of bars used in Slab = 1/8 × thickness of slab.
  13. Maximum Chair spacing = 1m.
  14. Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.
  15. Minimum diameter used for Dowels Bars is 12mm.
  16. Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and not be more than 6% of gross area of cross section.
  17. Binding wire required in steel reinforcement is 8kg per MT.
  18. Weight of 1 cement bag = 50kg.
  19. 1 bag of cement = 1.25 cubit feet = 0.0347 cubic meter.
  20. No. of Cement Bags in 1m3 = 28.8 bags.
  21. Initial setting time of Cement = 30 minutes.
  22. Final setting time of Cement = 10hrs = 600 minutes.
  23. PH value of the water should not be less than 6.
  24. Riser of staircase = 150mm to 200mm.
  25. Tread of staircase = 250mm to 300mm.
  26. Angle of staircase = 25° to 40°.
  27. Tensile or Flexural strength of concrete = 0.7√fck.
  28. Modulus of elasticity of concrete = [Ec=5000√fck].
  29. Young’s modulus of steel = [Es=2×10^5 N/mm2].
  30. F.O.S for steel = 1.15.
  31. F.O.S for Concrete = 1.5.
  32. Standard size of Brick = 190mm×90mm×90 mm = 19cm×9cm×9cm.
  33. A good brick clay contains 20 to 30% of alumina, 50 to 60% of silica and the remaining constituents are Lime, Magnesia, Sodium, Potassium, Manganese and iron oxide.
  34. Colour of good brick is deep red, cherry or copper colored.
  35. Compressive strength of bricks is 3.5 N/mm2.
  36. Maximum water absorption of first class brick is 15% of its dry weight.
  37. The excess of silica in the clay makes the brick brittle and weak.
  38. Process of manufacturing of bricks consists of Preparation of brick clayMoulding bricks, Drying of bricks and Burning of bricks.
  39. Moulding of bricks may be hand moulding or machine moulding.
  40. The burning of dry bricks is done either in clamp or in a kiln.
  41. The ingredients of ordinary cements are Lime, Silica, Alumina, Calcium sulphate, Iron oxide, Magnesia, Sulphur & Alkali’s.
  42. Ordinary Portland cement consists of 62 to 67% of Lime.
  43. The initial setting time of ordinary Portland cement should not be less than 30 minutes.
  44. The final setting time of ordinary Portland cement should not be more than 10 hours.
  45. Initial and Final setting time of cement is determined by Vicat’s apparatus.
  46. The normal consistency of Portland cement is about 25%.
  47. When concrete is to be laid under water, Quick setting cement is used.
  48. Maximum free fall of concrete allowed to 1.50m.
  49. Test On Fresh Concrete
      • Slump Test – Workability.
      • Compacting Factor Test.
      • Vee-Bee Test.
  50. Test On Hardened Concrete
      • Rebound (Schmidt) Hammer Test.
      • Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test.
      • M5    = 1 : 5 : 10
      • M7.5 = 1 : 4 : 8
      • M10  = 1 : 3 : 6
      • M15  = 1 : 2 : 4
      • M20  = 1 : 1.5 : 3
      • M25  = 1 : 1 : 2
      • M30 & above grade based on Design Mix.


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Full article on 51 Most important Points A Civil Engineer Must Know | Basic Things A Civil Engineer Should Know  | Basics of Civil Engineering | Basic Knowledge about Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Construction Basic Knowledge. Thank you for the full reading of this article in “The Civil Engineering” platform in English. If you find this post helpful, then help others by sharing it on social media. If any formula of BBS is missing from this article please tell me in comments.


  1. i am form azad kashmir pakistan i have 3 year diploma in civil DAE and 2 year work in masqat can i get job. i belong with poor family if and job site fourman site supervisor tell me thanks

    • Thanks for reply. The Civil Engineering is an Educational Platform not a Company so here we cannot provide any job but you can find your job through Linkedin, Google Search or Jang Newspaper or with the help of different job Websites

  2. First of all,Thank you very much. the text sent from this group is excellent.
    Sorry with apologise, I have one question for support me, based on urban planning and designing.
    1, Slum upgrading and health equity sample project pdf


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