Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Basics | Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks | Basic Civil Engineering Concepts

In this Article today we will talk about the Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Basics | Civil Engineering Tips and TricksUseful Information for Civil Engineers | Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering.

Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering, There are many activities that should be performed by civil engineer at site and in lab. Here we are going to discuss some important points which every civil engineer must learn and remember. These tips can also helps to crack interview. This is a kick start guide if you are joining in a any company as a Civil engineer and these are the best Civil Engineering Tips.

Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Basics, Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks, Useful Information for Civil Engineers, Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering, Useful information for Civil Engineers, Basic Civil Engineering Concepts
Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Basics

Civil Engineering basics are the basic parameters related to different civil engineering fields and Structures. All engineers should know these basics and especially expected from freshers. These are some very important basics. Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering

  1. 25 KN/ cum is unit weight of concrete
  2. 78.5 KN/ cum is unit weight of steel
  3. 10 KN/ cum unit weight of water
  4. 1 cement bag is 50 kgs.
  5. Standard size of brick is 19 cm X 9cm X 9cm
  6. Piles Transfer the Loads by friction or by end bearing.
  7. Slope of Stair shall not exceed 40 degrees.
  8. Preferably limit the number of steps to 12 per flight
  9. 1 cum Volume has 500 no of bricks.

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  1. These basic civil engineering concepts should be memorized and are useful in day to day work of civil engineer.
  2. Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameter more than 36 mm.
  3. Chair Spacing maximum spacing is 1 m or 1 No. per 1 sqm.
  4. For Dowels rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.
  5. Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars should be used.
  6. Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 08% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
  7. Minim Bars for Square Column 4 Nos and 6 Nos for Circular Column.
  8. Main Bars in the Slab should not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain Bars) and the distribution not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of Slab thickness.
  9. Minimum thickness of Slab is 125 mm.
  10. Dimension tolerance for cubes + 2 mm.
  11. Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50 m.
  12. Lap Slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.
  13. Water absorptions of brick should not be more than 15%.
  14. PH Value of Water should not be less than 6. Useful Information for Civil Engineers
  15. Compressive Strength of Bricks is 3.5 N/mm
  16. In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 Kg per MT.
  17. In Soil Fill as per IS Code, 3 Samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100 sqm.
  18. Electrical Conduits shall not run in columns.

Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering

Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Basics, Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks, Useful Information for Civil Engineers, Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering, Useful information for Civil Engineers, Basic Civil Engineering Concepts
Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Basics, Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks

 

Civil Engineering Basics of Construction Material:

The Basic construction materials are

    1. Cement
    2. Aggregate

Cement:

Cement is basically obtained by grinding the stones containing lime and clay. Cement is the binder which helps in the bonding of cement, sand along with water. Some of the very important types of cement are

  1. Low Heat cement used generally in construction of dams.
  2. Sulphate resisting cement used in corrosive type environment. Ex. Sewage contact surfaces
  3. Rapid hardening cement Useful Information for Civil Engineers
  4. Quick setting cement

Aggregates: 

Aggregates are generally of two Types 1) Fine Aggregate and 2) Coarse Aggregate Fine aggregate is the one that passes through 4.75 mm sieve and retained on 0.075 mm sieve Coarse aggregate is the one that retains on 4.75 mm sieve. Example of Fine aggregate – Sand Example of Coarse aggregate – Gravel Concrete :- Concrete is obtained by mixing cement, aggregate and water as per desired mix. Here water to cement ratio plays important role. Strength of concrete is inversely proportional to water cement ratio. Concrete is represented by nomenclature as M-25. M is Mix and 25 means compression strength at the end of 28 days considering concrete cubes of 15 cm cube. Concrete has Two setting types

Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering

  1. Initial Setting time – 30 min
  2. Final Setting time – 10 hrs

The test for setting time is done using Vicats apparatus. Concrete setting time can be reduced or increased depending on climatic conditions by using admixtures. Admixture for increasing the setting time is called retarder and for reducing the setting time is called accelerator. Useful Information for Civil Engineers

NOTE : THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT, WATER AND SAND IS CALLED MORTAR AND IS GENERALLY USED FOR PLASTERING WORKS.

Cement Mortar

Civil Engineering Basics related to Terminology:

  • Sub-structure :-  Part of structure which is below the ground level is called substructure
  • Super-structure :- Part of structure which is above ground level is super structure.
  • Elevation – It’s the view which we can see when we stand right in front of the structure on any of the sides.
  • Plastering – A cement, sand and water mix applied on brick wall for smooth surface for painting.
  • Plinth level – The level on which the actual structure stands on.
  • Riser – The vertical height of single step.
  • Tread – The horizontal portion where we put our foot on which going on steps.
  • Going – The inclined portion of stairs.
  • Footing – The bottom most part of structure. These are categorized as Isolated footing, combined footing, Raft etc.
  • Columns – The vertical members of structure .
  • Clear cover – It’s the clear distance maintained from concrete face up to face of the reinforcement steel.
  • Effective depth – It is the distance from top of the concrete face upto the CG of reinforcement.
  • Singly reinforced section – A section of concrete member with reinforcement at only on tension face.
  • Doubly reinforced section – A section of concrete member with reinforcement on both tension and compression side.
  • Stirrups –Steel bent in closed shape of either Rectangular of circular shape. These are generally to hold column bars in position and also effective in shear carrying capacity.
  • Cantilever beam – A beam with fixed support on one side and the other end is free.
  • Propped cantilever – A beam with fixed support on one side and other end is with pinned support.
  • Pedestal – When Length of the member is less than 3 times in width then its called pedestal.
  • One way slab – When ratio of length to width is more than 2 its one way slab
  • Two way slab – When ration of length to width is less than or equal to 2 , its two way slab.
  • Slender column – when length to width ratio of column is more than 12 , then its slender column
  • Plain cement concrete (PCC) – The cement concrete mix provided on the ground level over which foundations, beams are constructed. This is simply a levelling surface.
  • Pile foundation – The foundation system with Piles i.e cylinder shaped reinforced concrete member.
  • Frog – A small Depression on top of brick. This is for proper bonding with other bricks.
  • Scaffolding – A temporary structure, when work needs to be carried out at higher elevations.
  • Retaining wall – A wall constructed to retain earth.

Basic Understanding of Structures:

Any structure typically consists of following

  1. Foundation
  2. Columns
  3. Beams
  4. Slabs
  5. Main Walls and partition walls.
  6. Staircase
  7. Flooring i.e tiles
  8. Finishes – Plastering and Painting
  9. Staircase
  10. Boundary wall

Basic Load on Structures:

  1. Self Load/Self weight of structure i.e slabs, beams, columns, walls etc.,
  2. Live Loads due to furniture, equipment, machinery etc.
  3. Wind Loads
  4. Seismic Loads / Earthquake Loads
  5. Snow Loads
  6. Hurricane Loads at some locations

Various foundation types adopted are:

  1. Open foundation i.e Isolated footing/ combined footing/ Raft
  2. Pile Foundation

List of Major American codes:

  1. ACI 318 – Specifications for Structural concrete for buildings
  2. ASCE 7-05 – Specification for Loads on buildings
  3. AASHTO – Specifications for bridges
  4. AISC 303 – For structure steel building

List of Major Indian Codes:

  1. Code for Reinforced concrete – IS 456
  2. Specifications for steel construction – IS 800
  3. Wind Loads on building – IS 875
  4. For Seismic Specifications – IS 1893
  5. For water retaining structures – IS 3370

Clear Cover to Main Reinforcement:

  • Footings : 50 mm
  • Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
  • Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
  • Strap Beam : 50 mm
  • Grade Slab : 20 mm
  • Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
  • Shear Wall : 25 mm
  • Beams : 25 mm
  • Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
  • Flat Slab : 20 mm
  • Staircase : 15 mm
  • Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
  • Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
  • Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm
  • Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side
  • No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
  • For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D

Usefull Tips for Civil Engineers:

Lapping of bars Diameter of bar is less than 36mm.
Circular column Use Minimum 6 longitudinal bars
Thickness of slab Minimum is 0.125m
PH value of water More than 6 should be used for building purposes.
Compressive strength of Bricks 3.5 N /mm2
Dead Load of structure Self-weight of Structure
Moisture content Sand that haves more than 5% must not be used for Concrete mix.
DPC Thickness should not be less than 2.5cm
RMC (Ready Mix concrete)
  • It is made at factory and transported to the site.
  • It is used where there is a lack of space for mixing the concrete
  • It is used where a huge amount of concrete is required for construction.
Height of floor 3 m or 10 ft
Cantilever Beam One end is fixed support and the other end is free.
Simply supported beam It has Minimum of two supports
PCC It is Used on members when the tensile forces are not acting on it.
Weight of first-class clay brick and crushing strength 3.85 Kg and 10.5MN/m2
Impermeability of concrete It is the concrete that resists the entry of water or moisture into it.
Curing Period of RCC 28 days
Minimum sill level height 44 inches
Ties Transverse reinforcement providing in columns
Stirrups Transverse reinforcement providing in Beams
The thermal expansion co-efficient of concrete and steel 12×10−6/°C
Number of Bricks necessary for 1m3 of Brick masonry 550 bricks
Specific gravity of Cement  Specific gravity of brick Specific gravity of sand 3.16g/cm3  2g/cm3
2g/cm3
Standard Size of Brick 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
Slope or Pitch of the stair 25 degrees to 40 degrees
Rise in stairs 150mm to 200mm
Tread in staircase 250mm to 300mm
Hook length More than 9 * diameter of bar
Unit weight of PCC  Unit weight of RCC Unit weight of STEEL 24KN/m3   25 KN/m3 7850Kg/m3
Volume of 50 kg cement bag 1.3cft
TMT bars Thermo Mechanically treated bars
Length of each bar from factory 12m

Conclusion:

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