Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Basics | Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks | Basic Civil Engineering Concepts
In this Article today we will talk about the Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering | Civil Engineering Basics | Civil Engineering Tips and Tricks | Useful Information for Civil Engineers | Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering.
Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering, There are many activities that should be performed by civil engineer at site and in lab. Here we are going to discuss some important points which every civil engineer must learn and remember. These tips can also helps to crack interview. This is a kick start guide if you are joining in a any company as a Civil engineer and these are the best Civil Engineering Tips.
Civil Engineering basics are the basic parameters related to different civil engineering fields and Structures. All engineers should know these basics and especially expected from freshers. These are some very important basics. Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering
- 25 KN/ cum is unit weight of concrete
- 78.5 KN/ cum is unit weight of steel
- 10 KN/ cum unit weight of water
- 1 cement bag is 50 kgs.
- Standard size of brick is 19 cm X 9cm X 9cm
- Piles Transfer the Loads by friction or by end bearing.
- Slope of Stair shall not exceed 40 degrees.
- Preferably limit the number of steps to 12 per flight
- 1 cum Volume has 500 no of bricks.
Civil Site Engineer Must Know +18 Civil Engineer Tips and Tricks: Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering
- These basic civil engineering concepts should be memorized and are useful in day to day work of civil engineer.
- Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameter more than 36 mm.
- Chair Spacing maximum spacing is 1 m or 1 No. per 1 sqm.
- For Dowels rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.
- Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars should be used.
- Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 08% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
- Minim Bars for Square Column 4 Nos and 6 Nos for Circular Column.
- Main Bars in the Slab should not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain Bars) and the distribution not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of Slab thickness.
- Minimum thickness of Slab is 125 mm.
- Dimension tolerance for cubes + 2 mm.
- Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50 m.
- Lap Slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.
- Water absorptions of brick should not be more than 15%.
- PH Value of Water should not be less than 6. Useful Information for Civil Engineers
- Compressive Strength of Bricks is 3.5 N/mm
- In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 Kg per MT.
- In Soil Fill as per IS Code, 3 Samples should be taken for core cutting test for every 100 sqm.
- Electrical Conduits shall not run in columns.
Civil Engineering Basics of Construction Material:
The Basic construction materials are
Cement is basically obtained by grinding the stones containing lime and clay. Cement is the binder which helps in the bonding of cement, sand along with water. Some of the very important types of cement are
- Low Heat cement used generally in construction of dams.
- Sulphate resisting cement used in corrosive type environment. Ex. Sewage contact surfaces
- Rapid hardening cement Useful Information for Civil Engineers
- Quick setting cement
Aggregates are generally of two Types 1) Fine Aggregate and 2) Coarse Aggregate Fine aggregate is the one that passes through 4.75 mm sieve and retained on 0.075 mm sieve Coarse aggregate is the one that retains on 4.75 mm sieve. Example of Fine aggregate – Sand Example of Coarse aggregate – Gravel Concrete :- Concrete is obtained by mixing cement, aggregate and water as per desired mix. Here water to cement ratio plays important role. Strength of concrete is inversely proportional to water cement ratio. Concrete is represented by nomenclature as M-25. M is Mix and 25 means compression strength at the end of 28 days considering concrete cubes of 15 cm cube. Concrete has Two setting types
Practical Knowledge of Civil Engineering
- Initial Setting time – 30 min
- Final Setting time – 10 hrs
The test for setting time is done using Vicats apparatus. Concrete setting time can be reduced or increased depending on climatic conditions by using admixtures. Admixture for increasing the setting time is called retarder and for reducing the setting time is called accelerator. Useful Information for Civil Engineers
NOTE : THE MIXTURE OF CEMENT, WATER AND SAND IS CALLED MORTAR AND IS GENERALLY USED FOR PLASTERING WORKS.
Civil Engineering Basics related to Terminology:
- Sub-structure :- Part of structure which is below the ground level is called substructure
- Super-structure :- Part of structure which is above ground level is super structure.
- Elevation – It’s the view which we can see when we stand right in front of the structure on any of the sides.
- Plastering – A cement, sand and water mix applied on brick wall for smooth surface for painting.
- Plinth level – The level on which the actual structure stands on.
- Riser – The vertical height of single step.
- Tread – The horizontal portion where we put our foot on which going on steps.
- Going – The inclined portion of stairs.
- Footing – The bottom most part of structure. These are categorized as Isolated footing, combined footing, Raft etc.
- Columns – The vertical members of structure .
- Clear cover – It’s the clear distance maintained from concrete face up to face of the reinforcement steel.
- Effective depth – It is the distance from top of the concrete face upto the CG of reinforcement.
- Singly reinforced section – A section of concrete member with reinforcement at only on tension face.
- Doubly reinforced section – A section of concrete member with reinforcement on both tension and compression side.
- Stirrups –Steel bent in closed shape of either Rectangular of circular shape. These are generally to hold column bars in position and also effective in shear carrying capacity.
- Cantilever beam – A beam with fixed support on one side and the other end is free.
- Propped cantilever – A beam with fixed support on one side and other end is with pinned support.
- Pedestal – When Length of the member is less than 3 times in width then its called pedestal.
- One way slab – When ratio of length to width is more than 2 its one way slab
- Two way slab – When ration of length to width is less than or equal to 2 , its two way slab.
- Slender column – when length to width ratio of column is more than 12 , then its slender column
- Plain cement concrete (PCC) – The cement concrete mix provided on the ground level over which foundations, beams are constructed. This is simply a levelling surface.
- Pile foundation – The foundation system with Piles i.e cylinder shaped reinforced concrete member.
- Frog – A small Depression on top of brick. This is for proper bonding with other bricks.
- Scaffolding – A temporary structure, when work needs to be carried out at higher elevations.
- Retaining wall – A wall constructed to retain earth.
Basic Understanding of Structures:
Any structure typically consists of following
- Main Walls and partition walls.
- Flooring i.e tiles
- Finishes – Plastering and Painting
- Boundary wall
Basic Load on Structures:
- Self Load/Self weight of structure i.e slabs, beams, columns, walls etc.,
- Live Loads due to furniture, equipment, machinery etc.
- Wind Loads
- Seismic Loads / Earthquake Loads
- Snow Loads
- Hurricane Loads at some locations
Various foundation types adopted are:
- Open foundation i.e Isolated footing/ combined footing/ Raft
- Pile Foundation
List of Major American codes:
- ACI 318 – Specifications for Structural concrete for buildings
- ASCE 7-05 – Specification for Loads on buildings
- AASHTO – Specifications for bridges
- AISC 303 – For structure steel building
List of Major Indian Codes:
- Code for Reinforced concrete – IS 456
- Specifications for steel construction – IS 800
- Wind Loads on building – IS 875
- For Seismic Specifications – IS 1893
- For water retaining structures – IS 3370
Clear Cover to Main Reinforcement:
- Footings : 50 mm
- Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
- Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
- Strap Beam : 50 mm
- Grade Slab : 20 mm
- Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
- Shear Wall : 25 mm
- Beams : 25 mm
- Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
- Flat Slab : 20 mm
- Staircase : 15 mm
- Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
- Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
- Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm
- Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side
- No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
- For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D
Usefull Tips for Civil Engineers:
|Lapping of bars||Diameter of bar is less than 36mm.|
|Circular column||Use Minimum 6 longitudinal bars|
|Thickness of slab||Minimum is 0.125m|
|PH value of water||More than 6 should be used for building purposes.|
|Compressive strength of Bricks||3.5 N /mm2|
|Dead Load of structure||Self-weight of Structure|
|Moisture content||Sand that haves more than 5% must not be used for Concrete mix.|
|DPC||Thickness should not be less than 2.5cm|
|RMC (Ready Mix concrete)||
|Height of floor||3 m or 10 ft|
|Cantilever Beam||One end is fixed support and the other end is free.|
|Simply supported beam||It has Minimum of two supports|
|PCC||It is Used on members when the tensile forces are not acting on it.|
|Weight of first-class clay brick and crushing strength||3.85 Kg and 10.5MN/m2|
|Impermeability of concrete||It is the concrete that resists the entry of water or moisture into it.|
|Curing Period of RCC||28 days|
|Minimum sill level height||44 inches|
|Ties||Transverse reinforcement providing in columns|
|Stirrups||Transverse reinforcement providing in Beams|
|The thermal expansion co-efficient of concrete and steel||12×10−6/°C|
|Number of Bricks necessary for 1m3 of Brick masonry||550 bricks|
|Specific gravity of Cement Specific gravity of brick Specific gravity of sand||3.16g/cm3 2g/cm3
|Standard Size of Brick||19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm|
|Slope or Pitch of the stair||25 degrees to 40 degrees|
|Rise in stairs||150mm to 200mm|
|Tread in staircase||250mm to 300mm|
|Hook length||More than 9 * diameter of bar|
|Unit weight of PCC Unit weight of RCC Unit weight of STEEL||24KN/m3 25 KN/m3 7850Kg/m3|
|Volume of 50 kg cement bag||1.3cft|
|TMT bars||Thermo Mechanically treated bars|
|Length of each bar from factory||12m|
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