Thumb Rules Formula for Civil Engineers & Quantity Surveyors  Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering
Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering Construction are quick formula used by Civil Engineers and Quantity Surveyors to estimate the quantities of materials, strength, and reinforcement needed for a construction project. These thumb rules are widely used in Civil Site Engineering and are helpful to calculate Steel in RCC, Brick Calculation, Concrete Mix Design and Shuttering Work. They can be found in Civil Engineering pdfs and are based on past experiences and common practices, but it’s important to adapt them for specific requirements of each construction project.
Thumb Rules For Civil Site Engineer pdf
Thumb Rules For Civil Engineering is essential for any civil engineer, Site engineer, or civil supervisor. They play a crucial role while taking quick decisions on site. There is some Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge that every civil engineer must know.
Thumb Rule of Civil Engineering or the thumb rule for construction helps you in finding out the solution using a simple mathematical formula and make smart decisions whenever needed.
But, while using these thumb rules, you must remember that the thumb rule never gives the exact or accurate results, you just have used them for approximate results.
There is a number of Thumb Rule For Civil Engineers that we used in construction work. So, the following are some most frequently used Thumb rules on the Construction site.
The Thumb rule method is an approximate & comparing method. In thumb rules and the units are not the same when we compare to get the results. So, ignore units while performing the thumb rule.
Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering In Construction
Following are thumb rules in Civil Engineering,
1. Thumb Rule for Concrete Volume
The volume of concrete required = 0.038 m3/square feet area
Example:If Plan Area = 40 x 20 = 800 Sq. m.
So, for the plan area of 800 Sq. m. the area the total volume of concrete required
= 800 x 0.038m3 = 30.4m3
2. Thumb Rule for Steel Quantity for Slab, Beams, Footings & Columns
Following are some important thumb rules for steel calculation for slab, beam, column, and footings.
Steel required in residential buildings = 4.5 Kgs – 4.75 Kgs / sq. Ft.
Steel required For Commercial buildings = 5.0 Kgs5.50 Kgs/Sq. Ft.
You can also use BN Datta recommendations for the more accurate result,
The following recommendations Thumb Rules For Civil Engineering are given in B N Datta for the Steel quantity used in different members of the building.
3. Percentage of Steel in Structural Members
Following are thumb rules for reinforcement in concrete members,
 Slab – 1% of the total volume of concrete (Slab steel calculation thumb rule)
 Beam – 2% of the total volume of concrete
 Column – 2.5% of total volume of concrete
 Footings – 0.8% of the total volume of concrete
Example:
How to calculate the steel quantity of slab having the Length, width, and depth of the slab is 5m x 4m x 0.15m
Step 1: Calculate the Volume of Concrete:
The Total Volume of Concrete for given Slab = 5 x 4 x 0.15
= 3m^{3}
Step 2: Calculate The Steel Quantity Using Formula:
As per the guidelines are given in the BN Dutta reference book the steel quantity of slab is 1% of the total volume of concrete utilized.
Thumb rule to estimate Steel quantity of above slab = Volume of Concrete x Density of Steel x % of Steel of Member
Steel weight required for above slab = 3 x 7850 x 0.01 = 235 Kgs
For accurate estimation, you can refer to Bar Bending Schedule
4. Thumb Rules For Shuttering Work
Shuttering costs are taken as 1518% of the total construction of the building. Shuttering work is done to bring the concrete in Shape. The Thumb rule to estimate the shuttering required is 6 times the quantity of concrete or 2.4 times of the Plinth area.
For example, the concrete quantity is 0.5m^{3}, then
Area of Shuttering is 0.5 x 6 = 3m^{2}
Components of Shuttering
The Shuttering plate Ply, Battens, Nails are components of Shuttering.
Shuttering Ply Quantity estimation
Suppose, The Shuttering Ply has a length, width & depth of 2.44 x 1.22 x 0.012
The No. of Shuttering Ply Sheets = 0.22 times of Shuttering
Suppose, the Shuttering Area = 3m
Then Ply required for shuttering = 0.22 x 3 = 0.66m^{2 }
5. Battens Quantity Calculation
Shuttering Batten usually has a length & width of 75mm x 40mm.
Batten Quantity = 19.82 x No. of Ply Sheets
If work requires 25 Ply sheets, the total quantity of Battens are 19.82 x 25 = 495 Battens
Nails & Binding Wire Quantity in Shuttering:
Approximately,
75 grams of Nails were used in the shuttering of the 1m^{2} area.
75gms of Binding wire is used for every 1m^{2} of Shuttering.
Thumb rule for Shuttering oil estimation :
Shuttering oil is applied on the shuttering plate surface used to deframe or deassemble from the concrete easily.
Total required Shuttering oil = 0.065 x Total Area of Shuttering
(or)
For every 15m^{2} of shuttering 1 liter of shuttering oil is consumed.
Example :
If, total area of shuttering is 15 m2, then Shuttering oil Consumption = 0.065 x 15 = 0.975.
6. Thumb Rule for Cement, Sand, Coarse Aggregate Quantity Calculations
Note: 1 bag of cement = 50Kgs
Thumb rule for Cement required in Brickwork, Cement Masonry & Plastering work in construction.
7. Thumb Rule for Concrete Mix Designs
FOR ADDING 4 LITERS OF WATER IN 1 CU.M FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE
IF THE TEMPERATURE OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS INCREASED BY 1%, THEN
IF THE AIR CONTENT OF FRESHLY MIXED CONCRETE IS
8. Basic Thumb Rules Used in Building Construction
1. Minimize floortofloor height:
2. Use repetitive formwork
3. Use standard column size
4. Adopt uniform column layout
5. As far as possible, use the same depth for beams
6. Use high strength concrete in columns
7. Use high early strength concrete
8. Specify selfconsolidating concrete
9. Specify locally available materials
10. Use the commonly available size of bars and spirals
11. Use the largest bar size that satisfies the design considerations
12. Eliminate bent bars where possible
13. Avoid the congestion of steel
9. Thumb Rules For Civil Engineers for Brickwork or Brick Calculation
following are Thumb Rules for civil engineering for brickwork and cement quantity calculations.
Brickwork for 1m^{3}  Cement Qty in m^{3}  Cement Qty in Bags 
230 mm Brickwork  0.876m^{3}  25.4 Bags 
115 mm Brickwork  0.218m^{3}  6.32 Bags 
Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering
10. Thumb Rules For Cement Masonry Quantity
Cement Masonry Type & Mix  Cement Qty in Bags  Cement Qty in Kgs 
200mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:6  0.124Bags/m^{2}  6.2Kgs/m^{2} 
150mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:6  0.093Bags/m^{2}  4.65Kgs/m^{2} 
200mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4  0.206Bags/m^{2}  10.3Kgs/m^{2} 
150mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4  0.144Bags/m^{2}  7.2Kgs/m^{2} 
100mm in Cement Masonry work of Ratio 1:4  0.103Bags/m^{2}  5.15Kgs/m^{2} 
Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering
11. Thumb Rules Plastering Quantity
Type of Plastering  Cement Qty in Bags  Cement Qty in Kgs 
Rough Plastering  0.09 Bags/m^{2}  4. 5Kgs/m^{2} 
Internal Wall Plastering  0.09 Bags/m^{2}  4.5 Kgs/m^{2} 
Duct Plastering  0.09 Bags/m^{2}  4.5 Kgs/m^{2} 
External Wall plastering  0.175 Bags/m^{2}  8.75 Kgs/m^{2} 
Stucco Plastering  0.175 Bags/m^{2}  8.75 Kgs/m^{2} 
Lathen Plastering  0.55 Bags/m^{2}  27.5 Kgs/m^{2} 
Thumb Rules for civil engineering
12. Types of Area and Some Useful Requirements for Building:
1. Carpet area:
The actual area you use. The area on which ‘you can put a carpet’.
2. Built up area:
Carpet area + area of walls and ducts. Around 10% more than the carpet area. A terrace is considered as half the actual area for calculating built up area. Some projects charge dry terrace same as internal rooms.
3. Super built up / Saleable area:
Built up area + markup for common spaces like lifts and stairs. Usually 25% more than the built up area.
FAQs
What is Thumb Rule?
The rule of thumb is colloquially referred to as a thumb rule. A Thumb Rule is a guideline which provides concise advice on a given subject. It is a general concept that offers specific guidance for executing or approaching a given task. Thumb rules usually evolve as a result of practice and experience rather than a theoretical study.How do you calculate the steel by thumb rule?
 Slab – 1% of the total volume of concrete (Slab steel calculation thumb rule)
 Beam – 2% of the total volume of concrete Thumb Rule for Shuttering Work
 Column – 2.5% of the total volume of concrete
 Footings – 0.8% of the total volume of concrete
What is a Good Rule of Thumb?
What is the Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering?
 Lapping in reinforcement is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.
 Steel Char maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2.
 In steel dowels, a rod minimum of 12 mm diameter should be used.
 Steel Chairs minimum of 12 mm diameter bars to be used.
 Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
 The minimum bars used for a square column are 4 No’s and 6 No’s for the circular column. Thumb Rules for Steel in RCC
What is the Thumb Rule to determine Beam Depth?
Thumb Rules For Civil Site Engineer pdf
Thumb Rules for Civil Engineering
 Steel =3 to 5 kg / sqft.
 Cement =0.5bags/ sqft.
 RMC =0.05 m3/sqft.
 Block =12.5 nos /sqm.
 Electrical cast = Rs 133/sqft. Thumb Rule for Brick Calculation
 Plumbing cost = Rs 126/sqft.
 Fire fighting cost = Rs 40/sqft.
 External development = Rs 94.5/sqft. Thumb Rule for Concrete Mix Design
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Conclusion:
In conclusion, thumb rules in civil engineering construction are a quick and easy methods o formula used to estimate quantities, strength, reinforcement etc. They can be useful for quickly estimating the amount of materials needed for a project, but it’s important to doublecheck the calculations with detailed measurements and consult with relevant professionals. These thumb rules are based on past experiences and common practices and it’s necessary to adapt them to the specific requirements of each construction project.
Thank you for the full reading of this article in “The Civil Engineering” platform in English. If you find this post helpful, then help others by sharing it on social media. If any formula of Civil Engineering is missing from this article please tell me in comments.
24 Comments
Informative post sir, thank you for sharing this knowledgeable post, really this is very helpful.
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l learn from your information sir, thank you
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Very helpful post sir
Thanks a lot of.
welcome
Add these in your website
Is there any thumb rule for minor bridge,Major bridge and flyover structure Steel finding…..
not now, Thanks for the comments please visit more articles by clicking on “All Posts” tab of the Menu Bar
Please help me to find out the steel quantity in minor bridge, Major Bridge and flyover…..
I will try to upload this article
Sir here you written that Shuttering area is 3 M2..then how it is possible that the ply required is 0.66m2…we all know that the size of ply board is 2.44 x 1.22 = 2.9768 m2 area…please explain me sir..I am eager to know
please read it carefully again you will understand else i will try to explain u again
It will be more helpful if explanations come together with the right mathematical formula so that understanding can be easy.
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Thanks a lot sir.I am happy pl.up load more usefull article.
Thanks a lot Mr.Waseem for your outputs for the new commers and as well as for them who don’t have knowledge.
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Many Thanks for shaering this gret artical.
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Thanks sir its just awesome article
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Good information
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