General Notes for Civil Engineering:
In this Article today we will talk about the General Notes for Civil Engineering  Standard Data for Civil Engineers  Useful Notes for Civil Engineers  Civil Engineering Standards pdf  Civil Engineering Basic Formulas  Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge for Interview
Standard Data for Civil Engineers:
 Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.
 Chair spacing maximum spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1 Sq.m
 For dowels rod minimum of 12 mm dia should be used.
 Chairs minimum of 12 mm dia bars to be used.
 Longitudinal reinforcement not less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.
 Minimum bars for square column is 4 No’s and 6 No’s for circular column.
 Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.
 Minimum thickness of slab is 125 mm
 Dimension tolerance for cubes + 2 mm.
 Free fall of concrete is allowed maximum to 1.50m.
 Lap slices not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.
 Water absorption not more than 15 %.
 PH value of the water should not be less than 6.
 Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N / mm2
 In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT
 In soil filling as per IS code 100 sqm should take 3 sample for core cutting test General Notes for Civil Engineering
Types of Area and Some Useful Requirements for Building:
1. Carpet area:
The actual area you use. The area on which ‘you can put a carpet’.
2. Built up area:
Carpet area + area of walls and ducts. Around 10% more than the carpet area. A terrace is considered as half the actual area for calculating built up area. Some projects charge dry terrace same as internal rooms. Standard Data for Civil Engineers
3. Super built up / Saleable area:
Built up area + markup for common spaces like lifts and stairs. Usually 25% more than the built up area. Standard Data for Civil Engineers
Requirements for Backfill or Fill:
 Take grid levels at 5metre interval before the start of mass excavation.
 Approved material shall be used for backfilling. Soil with liquid limit exceeding 65% and for plasticity index exceeding 35% cannot be used. High clay soil is not preferred for backfilling.
 Imported fill shall be selected – graded hard granular fill with 100% free stones larger than 100mm, up to 50% passing 5mm mesh and not more than 20% passing a 75 micron sieve.
 Insitu field densities of compacted material should be 95% of maximum dry density or as specified by the consultant. Test should be conducted 10m centretocentre and before the antitermite treatment is done.
 For volumetric calculations cater for 30% quantity more of loose backfill to compacted volume. Useful Notes for Civil Engineers
Requirements for AntiTermite Treatment:
 Treatment shall be carried out according to the stipulations laid down by IS 6313 part II.
 The chemical to be used is Chloropyriphous 20%, EC with ISI certification.
 Dilute one part of Chloropyriphous 20% EC with 20 parts of water to get 1% emulsion.
 For horizontal and vertical surface, the dosage rate is 7.5 litre/m2.
 For along the perimeter of building insert rod at intervals of 150mm and depth 300mm and pour the chemical directly into the hole. Useful Notes for Civil Engineers
Size Stone Masonry or Rubble Masonry:
 Use silt free (less than 5%) medium gritty clean sand for mortar.
 Approved grade cement less than 1 month old should be used.
 The mortar proportions shall be either 1:4 or 1:6. The mortar when mixed shall have a slump of 75mm
 The thickness of mortar joints shall be 10 mm both horizontally and vertically
 The height of wall to be done in a day’s work shall be restricted to 1 metre.
Concrete Slump As Per IS 456:
 Lightly reinforced 25 – 75 mm
 Heavily reinforced 75 – 100 mm
 Trench fill (insitu & Tremie) 100 – 150 mm
(For Termie vibrator not required) Useful Notes for Civil Engineers
Durability:

 The Environment
 Cover to Steel
 Type and quality of the constituent material
 Cement content and Water Cement ratio.
 Workmanship to obtain full compaction.
 Compaction and efficient curing. Civil Engineering Standards pdf
Cube Samples:
 1 – 5 M3 : 1 No.
 6 – 15 M3 : 2 No’s
 16 – 30 M3 : 3 No’s
 31 – 50 M3 : 4 No’s
 Above 50 M3 : 4 + 1 No of addition sample for each 50 M3
Test Result of Samples:
 The test results of the samples shall be the average of the strength of three specimens.
 The individual variation should not be more than + 15 % of the average.
 If more the results of the sample are invalid. Civil Engineering Standards pdf
Compressive Strength of Concrete:
 3 days : 45 %
 7 days : 67 – 70 %
 14 days : 85 %
 28 days : 100% + Civil Engineering Standards pdf
Water Cement Ratio:
 M20 = 0.55
 M25 = 0.50
 M30 = 0.45
 M35 = 0.45
 M40 = 0.40 Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
Spacing of Bars:
 Provide the dia of the bar, if the dia of the bar are equal.
 Provide the dia of the larger bar, if the dia are unequal.
 5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.
Thread Couplers: (For Column lapping)
 Couplers for reinforcing bars 20 mm to 28 mm crimped sleeve
Approximate Cost Per Sq.ft (Mantri Project):
High Rise Building:
 Structure = 979 / Sft (Concreting, Block work, Plastering, Flooring, Dado, painting)
 Electrical works (Modular switches) = 172 / Sft
 Plumbing (P.H.E) = 93 / Sft
 Fire Fighting = 13 / Sft
 Lift = 34 / Sft
 Common Area = 94 / Sft
 External development (Landscape, road works, drains etc.,) = 87 / Sft
Test for Silt & Clay:
 Take 200 ml measuring cylinder fill sand up to 100ml mark
 Add 150ml of water and shake well
 Allow it to settle for 3 hrs.
 Measure the total height and height of clay.
 Calculate the clay and silt in total sand
 Clay and Silt should not exceed 3% by weight (or) 810% by volume
 For crushed sand Clay and Silt should not exceed 15% by weight
Organic Impurities:
 Don’t dried the specimen before testing
 Take 250 ml measuring cylinder.
 Add 75 ml of water with 3% of Sodium Hydroxide. Fill sand layer to 125 ml
 Make the volume up to 200ml by adding more of sodium hydroxide solution
 Shake well allow it to stand for 24 hrs
 If the solution becomes darker than straw yellow colour then the sand has to be tested for further by casing mortar cubes for 7 & 28 days is not less than 95%.
 If the solution is lighter or just straw yellow colour the sand can be used for concreting without any further test. Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
Density of Materials:
 Weight of Bricks = 16001920 Kg/M3
 Weight of Block work = 1920 Kg/M3
 Weight of R.C.C = 2310 – 2700 Kg/M3 Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge for Interview
Curing Time:
 Super Sulphate cement : 7 days
 Ordinary Portland cement OPC : 10 days
 Minerals & Admixture added cement : 14 days Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
Stripping Time (DeShuttering):
 For columns, walls, vertical form works : 1624 hrs
 Soffit formwork to slabs : 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)
 Soffit to beams props : 7 days props to refix after removal.
 Spanning up to 4.50m : 7 days
 Spanning over 4.50m : 14 days
 Arches spanning up to 6m : 14 days
 Arches spanning over 6m : 21 days
Quantities Required:
 Plastering (CM 1:3) = 1.50 bags / 10 m2
 Plastering (CM 1:5) = 1.05 bags / 10 m2
 Ceiling Plastering (CM 1:3) = 48 kg / 10 m2
 Brick work (CM 1:5) = 86 Kg / 10 m3
 Brick work (CM 1:6) 9” thick = 80.64 Kg / 10 m3 B
 Brick work (CM 1:3) 4½” thick = 15.46 Kg / 10 m3
 Lime for white washing = 10 Kg/100 m2
 Painting = 10 ltr/ 100 m2
 Distemper 1st coat = 6.5 Kg / 100 m2
 Distemper 2nd coat = 5.0 kg / 100 m2
 Snowcem 1st coat = 30 Kg / 100 m2
 Snowcem 2nd coat = 20 Kg / 100 m2
 Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2
 Weathering Course = 7.68 Kg / m2
 Flooring = 8.10 kg / m2 Standard Data for Civil Engineers
 Pressed tiles for weathering course (CM 1:3) = 7.68 Kg / 10 m2
 Granolithic floor finish = 8.10 Kg / 10 m2 Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
Steel or Reinforcement Calculation Formulas:
 Weight of rod per meter length = d2 / 162 where d in mm
 “L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300mm
 Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side
 For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D
 No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
 Design strength is M 40, target strength is 1.25 x 40 = 50 Mpa
Trapezoidal Footing Formula:
 Volume, V = (L x B x D) = H/3{A1 + A2 + sq.rt (A1+A2)}
 Where A1 = L x B
 A2 = l x b
 H = Dd (Overall depth of footing – depth of Rectangular footing)
Theoretical Weight:
 Cement = 1440 Kg/m3
 Steel = 7850 Kg/m3
 Bricks = 1600 – 1920 Kg/m3
 1 HP = 745.7 watts Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge for Interview
Cement Requirements for Design Mix:
 M10 : 210 Kg
 M20 : 320 Kg
 M25 : 340 Kg
 M30 : 380 Kg
 M35 : 410 Kg
 M40 : 430 Kg
 M45 : 450 Kg
 M50 : 450 + M.S 7.5% Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge for Interview
Accuracy of Measuring Equipment in Batching Plant:
 Cement : + 2%
 Aggregate : + 3%
 Admixture : + 3%
 Water : + 3%
 Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing.(site Mixing)
Tolerance for Different Construction Works:
Form work:
 In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size
 In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size
 In depth = + 0.05 D (specified thickness) Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
Reinforcement:
 For effective depth D < 200mm = + 10mm
 For effective depth D > 200mm = + 15mm
 For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm
 Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.
Tolerance on Dia in Length:
 025mm = + 0.5 %
 2535mm = + 0.6 %
 3550mm = + 0.8 % Civil Engineering Standards pdf
Tolerance on Weight Per Meter:
 010mm = +7%
 1016mm = + 5%
 16 and above = + 3% Useful Notes for Civil Engineers
Tolerance for Cutting Length:
 A) When the specified length is not given = + 75mm (or) – 25 mm
 B) When the min. length is specified = + 50 mm (or) – 0 mm
Important Short Forms & Full Forms of Civil Engineering Words:
RCC – Reinforced Cement Concrete  AE – Assistant Engineer 
B.M – Benchmark / Bending moment  APM – Assistant Project Manager 
BHK – Bedroom, Hall, Kitchen  BOQ – Bill Of Quantities 
BWK – Brick Work  W.C – Water closet. 
CC– Cement concrete / Centre To Centre  C.I.Sheet – Corrugated Iron sheet. 
CE – Chief Engineer  CPM – Critical path method. 
D – Diameter  D.L – Dead load 
DPC – Damp proof course.  DPR – Daily Progress Report 
FL – Floor Level  FOC – Factor Of Safety 
GL – Ground Level  JE – Junior Engineer 
Kg – Kilogram  L.L – Live load. 
MFL – Maximum Flood Level  N – Newton 
OPC – Ordinary Portland Cement  PCC – Plain Cement Concrete 
PERT – Programme Evaluation and Review Technique.  PL – Plinth level. 
QC – Quality control  RCC – Reinforced Cement Concrete 
RMC – Ready Mixed Concrete  TDS – Total Dissolved Solids 
W.C – Water closet.  WO – Work Order 
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