How to Calculate Load on Column, Beam, Slab & Wall | Column Design Calculations | Beam Load Calculation:

In this Article today we will talk about the Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab | Column Design Calculation | Beam Load Calculation | Wall Load Calculation | Steel Load Calculation | Load Calculation of Building

What Is Column ?

A compression member, i.e., a column, is an integral part of every reinforced concrete structure. These transfer the load from the superstructure to the foundation. In fact, if you take away these elements from a building, it will collapse. Column Design Calculation

The compression members found in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories and many more structures are typically columns, struts and pedestals.

Definition: A column is a vertical compression member that’s subjected to effective lengths and axial loads of which exceed three times its least lateral dimension.

When a compression member is inclined or horizontal and experiences loads, it is called a strut. Struts are commonly used in trusses 

A pedestal is a compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension.

The function of columns is to transfer the load of a building vertically downward, so that it can be delivered to the foundation. In addition to this, columns also perform several other functions:

  • Enclosing buildings into different compartments allows for privacy.

  • It can offer protection against burglary and insect infestation.

  • It keeps the building comfortable year-round.

How to Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab

What Is Beam ?

When a structure member’s cross section is much smaller than its length, and that member undergoes lateral forces, it is known as a beam.

Beams are a structural element that fights against bending. They carry vertical gravitational forces, but also pull horizontal loads on them.

The beam is called a wall plate or sill plate. It transmits loads to the girders, columns, or walls. Early builders of homes and buildings used beams made of wood to support the structure, but now they are made up of aluminum, steel, or other such materials.

To support the weight and tension of bridges, pre-stressed concrete beams are used in the foundation. Bridges and other large structures have foundations that are often made of pre-stressed concrete beams. umn Design Calculation

Here are the most common kinds of beams that are used nowadays: the simply supported beam, fixed beam, cantilever beam, continuous beam, and the overhanging beam. Column Design Calculation 

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What is Wall ?

Walls divide spaces into separate rooms and provide security and shelter. Generally, walls are divided into two types: outer walls (which protect the building from the outside) and inner walls (which protect the building’s interior).

Outer walls protect the house and keep it safe from outside forces, while partitions or inner walls separate rooms and give each one privacy. Column Design Calculation

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What Is Slab ?

A concrete slab is a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete, common in modern buildings.

Slabs provide flat surfaces in buildings, bridges, and other structures. These slabs are typically supported by walls, reinforced concrete beams cast monolithically with the slab, steel beams (either columns or ground-supported), or a combination of all three.

The use of slabs as floor or roof structures is common in buildings. A slab has a depth (D), which is very small as compared to its length and width. Slabs distribute load uniformly on the ground and support heavy loads.

 
Slab May Have Been:
  • Simply Supported.
  • Continues. Steel Load Calculation
  • Cantilever.

Load Calculation on RCC Column, Beam, Wall & Slab:

  • Column = Self  Weight x Number of floors
  • Beams = Self Weight per running meter
  • Wall Load Per Running Meter
  • Total Load on Slab (Dead Load + Live Load +Wind Load + Self-Weight)

In addition to this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. These tools can save time and effort by reducing the need for laborious manual calculations, making them highly recommended in structural engineering today. Steel Load Calculation

For professional structural design practice, we should use advanced structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS. We need to keep in mind some basic assumptions when designing structures.

Load Calculation on Column:

We know that the weight of concrete is around 2400 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 24.54 kn/m3; we also know that the weight of steel is around 7850 kg/m3. ( Note: 1 kilonewton is equal to 101.9716 kilograms.)
 

When we assume a column size of 300 mm x 600 mm and 1% steel, and a 2.55-meter standard height, the self-weight of the column is about 1000 kilograms per floor. That’s equal to 10 kN.

How to Load Calculation on Column ?

  1. Size of column Height 2.55 m, Length = 300 mm, Width = 600 mm (2.55m x 300mm x 600mm)

  2. Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 2.55 =0.459 m³

  3. Weight of Concrete = 0.459 x 2400 = 1101.60 kg

  4. Weight of Steel (1%)  in Concrete 0.459 x 1% x 7850 = 36.03 kg

  5. Total Weight of Column = 1101.60 + 36.03 = 1137.63 kg = 11.12 KN

We assume that the weight of a column is between 10 and 12 kN per floor when we do calculations.

Beam Load Calculation:

We also use the same method of calculations for beams. In our model, we assume each meter of the beam is 350 mm wide and 650 mm high excluding slab thickness.

Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension

How to Beam Load Calculation ?

  1. 350 mm x 650 mm excluding slab.

  2. Volume of Concrete = 0.350 x 0.650 x 1 = 0.2275 m³

  3. Weight of Concrete = 0.2275 x 2400 = 546 kg

  4. Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.2275 x 2% x 7850 = 35.72 kg

  5. Total Weight of Column = 546 + 35.72 =  581.72 kg/m = 5.70 KN/m

So, the self-weight will be around 5.70 kN per running meter.

How to Calculate Load on Wall:

We know that the density of bricks ranges from 1800 to 2000 kg/m3.

For a 9 inch (230 mm) thick Brick wall of 3.55-meter height and a length of 1 meter, Steel Load Calculation

The load / running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 3.55 x 2000 = 1633 kg/meter,

which is equivalent to 16.01 kN/meter.

This method can be used for load calculations of any brick type, depending on the length and height of the wall. Load Calculation of Building

For aerated concrete blocks and auto-claved concrete (ACC) blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter ranges between 550 and 650 kilograms.

The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 3.55 x 650 = 530.725 kg

If you use these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 5.20 kN/meter. This can significantly reduce the cost of your project.

How to Calculate Load on Slab:

load on slab

Let us assume that the slab has a thickness of 150 mm.Load Calculation of Building

So, each square meter of the slab would have a self-weight of

Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN.

Now, if we consider the load due to floor finishing to be 1 kN per meter, the superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and wind load as per IS 875 to be about 2 kN per meter.

Given the data above, we can estimate that the slab load is around 8 to 9 kN per square meter.

How to Load Calculation of the Building:

Building load is the cumulative weight of a structure’s dead load, imposed or live load, and wind or earthquake load, if applicable.

Dead loads are due to the structure’s self-weight that remains the same throughout its lifespan. These loads may be tension or compression loads.

The imposed or live loads on a building are the dynamic forces or load due to the use or occupancy of the building, including furniture. These loads vary continually and are one of the more important considerations in designing a structure. Load Calculation of Building

Calculation Of Live load:

The live load of the building has to be calculated according to IS- 875 1987 part 2.

For residential buildings, we usually consider the value of the live load to be 3 KN/m2. The value of live load varies according to the type of building for which we have to follow the code IS 875 -1987 part 2.

Calculation Of Dead Load:

To calculate the dead load of a building, we must determine the volume of each member like footing, column, beam, slab and wall and multiply it by its unit weight.

Adding the dead load of all structural components allows us to determine the total dead load of a building.

Factor of Safety:

Lastly, be sure to add the factor of safety to your calculations. This is especially important for a building’s structural design so that it will be safe and able to withstand its loads during its service life.

It is crucial to the structural integrity of a building when the load calculation of each column is done.

The Factor of Safety is 1.5 as per IS 456:2000

FAQ’S

How to Load Calculation on Column?

  • Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 3 =0.54m³
  • Weight of Concrete = 0.54 x 2400 = 1296 kg
  • Weight of Steel (1%)  in Concrete 0.54 x 0.01 x 7850 = 42.39 kg
  • Total Weight of Column = 1296 + 42.39 = 1338.39 kg = 13.12 KN

How to Wall Load Calculation?

  1. Density of brick wall with mortar is in between 1600-2200 kg/m3. So we consider self weight of bricks wall is 2200 kg/m3 in this calculation.
  2. Volume of brick wall: Volume of bricks wall = l × b ×h, Length = 1 meter, Width = 0.152 mm, Height of wall = 3.0 meter, Volume = 1m× 0.152 m× 3.0 m, Volume of brick wall = 0.456 m3
  3. Dead load of brick wall: Weight = volume × density, Dead load = 0.456 m3 × 2200 kg/m3, Dead load = 1003.2 kg/m
  4. It will be converted into kilo Newton by dividing with 100 we will get 10.03 kN/m
  5. So dead load of a brick wall is about 10.03 kN/m acting on column.

How to Beam Load Calculation?

  • 350 mm x 650 mm excluding slab.

  • Volume of Concrete = 0.350 x 0.650 x 1 = 0.2275 m³

  • Weight of Concrete = 0.2275 x 2400 = 546 kg

  • Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.2275 x 2% x 7850 = 35.72 kg

  • Total Weight of Column = 546 + 35.72 =  581.72 kg/m = 5.70 KN/m

What is Column Load?

A column is a vertical member of an RCC structure. Compressed axially by the superstructure, it transfers its load to the foundation.

What is Dead Load Calculation for a Building?

Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials.
 
By calculating the volume of each member of building and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate dead load can be find for each component of building.

How to Column Design Calculations?

  • Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 3 =0.54m³
  • Weight of Concrete = 0.54 x 2400 = 1296 kg
  • Weight of Steel (1%)  in Concrete 0.54 x 0.01 x 7850 = 42.39 kg
  • Total Weight of Column = 1296 + 42.39 = 1338.39 kg = 13.12 KN

How to Footing Load Calculations?

For a 6″ thick wall with 4 meter height and 1 meter length, the load can be measured per running meter equivalent to 0.150 x 1 x 4 x 2000 = 1200 kg which is equivalent to 12 kN/meter. The load per running meter can be measured for any bricks type by following this method.

How to Concrete Slab Load Calculations?

  • Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2.5 m Thickness 0.150 m
  • Concrete Volume = 3 x 2.5 x 0.15 = 1.125 m³
  • Concrete Slab weight = 1.125 x 2400 = 2700 kg. Column Design Calculation

How to Steel or Reinforcement Load Calculation?

  • Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2.5 m Thickness 0.150 m
  • Concrete Volume = 3 x 2.5 x 0.15 = 1.125 m³
  • Concrete weight = 1.125 x 2400 = 2700 kg.
  • Steel weight (1%) in Concrete = 1.125 x 0.01 x 7850 = 88.31 kg.
  • Total Column weight= 2700 + 88.31 = 2788.31 kg/m = 28.21 KN/m.

How to Calculate Load on Beam?

  1. 350 mm x 650 mm excluding slab.

  2. Volume of Concrete = 0.350 x 0.650 x 1 = 0.2275 m³

  3. Weight of Concrete = 0.2275 x 2400 = 546 kg

  4. Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.2275 x 2% x 7850 = 35.72 kg

  5. Total Weight of Column = 546 + 35.72 =  581.72 kg/m = 5.70 KN/m


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Conclusion:

Full article on How to Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab | Column Design Calculation | Beam Load Calculation | Wall Load Calculation | Steel Load Calculation | Load Calculation of Building. Thank you for the full reading of this article in “The Civil Engineering” platform in English. If you find this post helpful, then help others by sharing it on social media. If any formula of BBS is missing from this article please tell me in comments.

19 COMMENTS

  1. Have you done any upload on Column Load on a Solar Car park structure 16 Nos of Panel weighing 27 Kgs each on the Car Park, with required purlin and beams; 3 Column steel , H Shaped Column, the length of the car park to be 9.2 Mtr and Width to be 4.5 Mtrs only, Height of Column will be 3.5 Meter at the back and sloping frontwards at an angle of 5 Deg – 10 Deg and Clearance height at the front for car entry to be 2.7 Mtrs Minimum

  2. TO,
    DEAR SIR,
    HOW TO STEEL STRUCTURAL COLUMN LOAD ON CIVIL FOUNDATION PAPER IN EXCEL SHEET REQUIRE
    REGARDS,
    VINAYCHANDRA ADHVARYU

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