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What is Basic Knowledge of Brickwork | Brick Masonry

In this Article today we will talk about the What is Basic Knowledge of Brickwork | What is Brickwork | What is Brick Masonry | Characteristics of Bricks | Advantages of Brick Masonry | Types of Brick Masonry | Masonry Joints | Brick Closer | Orientation of Bricks | Tests of Bricks | Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry | Qualities of Good Bricks | Classification of Bricks

Basic Knowledge of Brickwork:

Brickwork is very much important as it carries the load of the horizontal beams.

If it is not done perfectly then the total structure may disrupt during the work, making huge loss.so it is better to perform each step properly in construction process so that the structure would stand for long time.For brick masonry following things should be taken care so that it would not create any disorder in the process of the rest of the construction process.

But before that the material used for brick work should be chosen wisely .so we are going to discuss the types of brick first as it is the main component of brick. Basic Knowledge of Brickwork


What is Brickwork | Basic Knowledge of Brickwork:

  1. Brick bonds are an essential part of wall structure.
  2. “brick” is a standard-sized weight- bearing building unit.
  3. Several bricks are laid together in stacks.
  4. Mortar paste is placed on top of each to form a firm bond.
  5. are laid to form the structure.
  6. There are different ways in which bricks are termed as bonds. Basic Knowledge of Brickwork

What is Brick Masonry

BRICK:

Brick is a building unit ,which is in the form of rectangular block in which length to breadth ratio is 2 but height can be different. Basic Knowledge of Brickwork

MASONARY:

Construction of building unit bonded together with mortar. Basic Knowledge of Brickwork

BRICK MASONRY:

The art of laying bricks in mortar in a proper systematic manner gives homogeneous mass which can withstand forces without disintegration, called Brick masonry. Basic Knowledge of Brickwork


Bick Masonry – Uniqueness:

  • FIRE RESISTANCE
  • SIZE
  • DURABILITY
  • WORAKABILITY
  • ECONOMICAL Characteristics of Bricks

Characteristics of Bricks:

  • Brick will not burn, buckle or melt.
  • Brick will not rot and allow Termites to invade.
  • Brick will not rust and corrode.
  • Brick will not dent.
  • Brick will not fade from the Sun’s UV Rays.
  • Brick will not be damaged by high winds , rain or hail.
  • Brick will not require constant maintains.
  • Brick will not devalue.
  • Brick will not limit your personal expression.
  • Brick will not limit your design options. Characteristics of Bricks

Advantages of Brick Masonry:

  • The Brick masonry is cheaper than compared to stone masonry.
  • Bricks are of uniform size.
  • Bricks are very workable.
  • Brick blocks don’t need any dressing.
  • Bricks are very light in weight.
  • No complicated lifting devices are necessary in brick work.
  • There is no problem to its availability.
  • They do not require transportation from long distances.
  • Brick work can be done by the less skilled labours also.
  • Bonding strength is very good and brick work is more durable. Characteristics of Bricks

Types of Brick Masonry:

There are two types of Brick Masonry Advantages of Brick Masonry

  1. Brick work in mud
  2. Brick work in cement

Brickwork in Mud:

  • The mud is used to fill up the joints.
  • Thickness of the mortar joint is 12 mm.
  • Cheapest
  • Maximum height of wall is 4 m. Characteristics of Bricks

Brickwork in Cement:

1st Class:

  • Cement of lime mortar is used.
  • The surface and edges of bricks are sharp.
  • The thickness of mortar joints doesn’t exceed 10mm Characteristics of Bricks

2nd Class:

  • Ground moulded bricks are used.
  • Bricks are rough and shape is slightly irregular.
  • The thickness of mortar joint is 12 mm. Characteristics of Bricks

3rd Class:

  • Bricks are not hard ,rough surface with distorted shape.
  • Used for temporary structures.
  • Used in places where rainfall is not heavy. Advantages of Brick Masonry

Size of Brick:

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Brick Size. A standard metric brick has coordinating dimensions of 225 x x 75 mm called nominal size and. working dimensions (actual dimensions) of 215 x x 65 mm called architectural size. Frogs permit stronger bonding between units. There is no truly standard brick.

Nominal size:

A standard metric brick has coordinating dimensions of 225 x 112.5 x 75 mm (9” x 4.5” x 3”) Advantages of Brick Masonry

Architectural size:

Working dimensions (actual dimensions)of 215 x 102.5 x 65 mm (8.5” x 4” x 2.5”) Advantages of Brick Masonry


Masonry Joint:

Weathered joint:

Mortar joint has sloped (downwards) edge. Advantages of Brick Masonry

Concave joint:

Joint concave inwards. Characteristics of Bricks

Vee joint:

Mortar joint is the form of V. Masonry Joints

Flush joint:

Mortar joint is flush with the brick surface. Masonry Joints

Raked joint:

A large portion of the mortar joint is raked out not a safe ,impermeable joint. Masonry Joints

Stripped joint:

A medium large portion of the mortar joint is a safe permeable joint. Masonry Joints

Struck joint:

Mortar joint has aslope (upwards) edge. Masonry Joints


Tools Used in Brick Masonry:

  • Trowel Masonry Joints

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  • Plumb bob Masonry Joints

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  • Hammer
  • Mason square Masonry Joints
  • Spirit Level Brick Closer
  • House Level Brick Closer
  • Measuring Tape Brick Closer

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Brick Courses and Closers:

Closer bricks: the brick is cut in such a way that one portion is kept remains with the break and used another part for closing the gap. Brick Closer

Queen Closer:

Queen Closer

A brick cut in half down its length. Brick Closer

King Closer:

King Closer

A brick cut a corner & joining middle points of width and length of the brick. Brick Closer

Three Quarter Bat:

Three Quarter Bat

A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, and laid with its long, narrow side exposed. Brick Closer

Half Brick Bat:

A brick cut in half across its width and laid in the wall structure. Orientation of Bricks

Bevelled Closer:

Bevelled Closer

Bevelled closer: in this break, the stretcher face is bevelled in such a way that at one end half-width and on another end, full width is maintained. Orientation of Bricks

Mitered Closer:

Mitered Closer

in this break, the one and it is cut in a mitred manner. That is a 45 to 60-degree angle with length. It is shown in the above diagram. Orientation of Bricks

Squint Closer:

Squint Closer

It is also cut brick.the portion of cut forms angles other than right angle. Uses exterior or interior corners are to be built at some angle and also for ornamental purposes. Orientation of Bricks

Bull Nose Closer:

Bull Nose Closer

Bull Nose : it is otherwise a standard brick having one arris or edge rounded. Uses for decoration purposes. Orientation of Bricks

Cow Nose Closer:

Cow Nose Closer

Cow Nose : it is similar to a bull nose but has both edges on the side rounded. It may be called a double bullnose. Use for ornamental purpose. Orientation of Bricks

Quarter Bat:

Quarter Bat

  A brick cut to a quarter of its length. Tests of Bricks


Orientation of Bricks:

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Orientation of Bricks

A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Tests of Bricks

Stretcher or stretching brick

A brick laid flat with its long narrow side exposed. Tests of Bricks

Header or heading brick

A brick laid flat with its width exposed. Tests of Bricks

Soldier

A brick laid vertically with its long narrow side exposed. Tests of Bricks

Sailor

A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed. Tests of Bricks

Rowlock

A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Tests of Bricks

Shiner or rowlock stretcher

A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry

Rules for Good Brick Bonding:

  • Uniform in size.
  • Bricks arranged uniformly throughout the wall.
  • Bats are used as little as possible.
  • The bricks in the interiors of wall laid as headers, that is, across the wall.
  • The lap not more than 2 and one-fourth(1/4) inches.
  • The vertical joints in every other course should be vertically over one another. Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry

Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry:

  • English bond.
  • Flemish bond.
  • Header bond.
  • Stretcher bond.
  • Facing bond.
  • English cross bond.
  • Brick on edge bond.
  • Dutch bond.
  • Raking bond.
  • Garden wall bond Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry
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Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry

Flemish Bond:

  • This bond has one stretcher between headers, with the headers centered over the stretchers in the course below.
  • When a course begins with a stretcher, the course will ordinarily terminate with a stretcher at the other end.
  • Brickwork that appears as Flemish bond from both the front and rear is Double Flemish bond. Qualities of Good Bricks

English Bond:

  • Bricks are laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
  • There is a chance of penetration of damp through transverse joints.
  • Queen closures are inserted next to headers to produce overlap.
  • English bonds are the strongest but it is to be noted that the continuous vertical joints are to be avoided.
  • Appearance is not as good as Flemish bonds. Qualities of Good Bricks

Sussex Bond:

  • This bond has three stretchers between every header.
  • The headers are centered above the midpoint of three stretchers in the course below.
  • Generally used as garden walls and are relatively cheaper than other bonds. Qualities of Good Bricks

Garden Wall Bond:

  • Used for 9 inch wall.
  • Used when a fair face is required on both sides.
  • Wall is composed of three or four courses of stretchers alternating with one of headers.
  • It is mostly used in construction of garden wall. Qualities of Good Bricks

Header Bond:

  • Heading or Header Bond is laid on headers.
  • Used for round quick sweeps .
  • Should never be used in straight work as it is very week.
  • This bond is used for facing of curved surface and footings in foundations. Qualities of Good Bricks

Streatcher Bond:

  • Bricks are laid in stretchers.
  • Used in walls of half – brick in thickness.
  • Due to its constant occurrence in the last position it is also called Chimney Bond, Running Bond.
  • This bond doesn’t develop proper internal bond. Qualities of Good Bricks

Qualities of Good Bricks:

  • Bricks should be uniform in shape & standard in size.
  • Bricks should give a clear metallic ringing sound when struck with each other.
  • Bricks should show a bright homogeneous & free from voids.
  • Bricks should be well brunt and possess sharp edges.
  • Colour of the bricks should be uniform and bright.
  • Bricks should be sufficiently hard & no impression should be left on bricks surface when scratched with finger nail.
  • Bricks should have crushing strength above 5.50N/mm”.
  • The bricks should not break when it dropped from a height of about 1 m.
  • The bricks should not absorb water more than 20% by weight when soaked in cold water for 24 hrs. Qualities of Good Bricks
  • The bricks should not show any deposits of white salts when allowed to dry in shade.

Classification of Bricks:

Classification and Uses of Bricks

First Class Bricks:

  • This are table moulded.
  • Surface & edges are sharp, square ,smooth , straight.
  • Well brunt & have uniform texture ,metallic ringing when struck against each other.
  • Used for superior work. Classification of Bricks

Second Class Bricks:

  • This are ground moulded brick.
  • Surface are rough.
  • The quality of this bricks are inferior. Classification of Bricks

Third Class Bricks:

  • The surface & edges are rough.
  • Does not create any metallic sound.
  • Used for temporary & unimportant structure. Classification of Bricks

Fourth Class Bricks:

  • This bricks are over brunt.
  • Irregular shape & dark colour
  • Used in floor , foundation, roads. Classification of Bricks

Tests for Bricks:

1) Absorption:- The brick should not absorb water more than 20% of dry weight.

2) Crushing strength:- As per BIS 1077-1957 the minimum crushing strength of bricks is 3.5 N/mm2 Classification of Bricks

3) Hardness :- Brick is treated to be sufficient hard if no impression could be made on the surface of the brick by finger nail.

4) Soundness :- Two bricks when struck with each other should emit metallic ringing sound. Classification of Bricks

5) Structure :- It should be homogeneous ,compact ,and free from any defects.

6) Shape & size :- Standard size (190 X 90 X 90 mm) and shapes should be truly rectangular with sharp edges and smooth surface.


Defects in Brick Masonry:

Sulphate attack :- Sulphate salts present in bricks work react with alumina content of cement .It occur in boundary walls.

Crystallization of salts from bricks :- Occur in masonry made out of brick which contain excessive soluble salts.This phenomenon is also known as efflorescence.

Corrosion of embedded iron or steel :- Iron or steel embedded in brick work gets corroded in the presence of dampness .On corrosion the metal expands in volume and tends to crack the brick work.


Summary:

  • Masonry boasts an impressive compressive strength (vertical loads) but is much lower in tensile strength unless reinforced.
  • Brick masonry increases the thermal mass of a building and thereby resists fire.
  • Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking.

FAQs for Basic Knowledge of Brickwork


What is brick masonry used for?

Brick masonry is a sturdy form of construction where bricks are systematically placed in a mortar to create a solid structure. Brick is one of the most durable and versatile building materials used for both commercial and residential homes.

Is masonry the same as brick?

Solid masonry construction is also called 'Solid Brick', 'Double Brick', and sometimes 'Brick and Block'. In its most common form, a solid masonry wall consists of an outer layer of brick and an inner layer of brick (a layer of brick is called a 'wythe' in masonry circles).

Which mortar is used for brick masonry?

Bricklayers typically make mortars using a mixture of sand, a binder, and water. The most common binder since the early 20th century is Portland cement, but the ancient binder lime mortar is still used in some specialty new construction.

How the structure of brick is tested?

End of a brick is placed in a glass dish containing water and it is tested for efflorescence after it is absorbed or evaporated. Explanation: After first evaporation, sample is dried. Then again same procedure is repeated. It is after second evaporation, brick is tested for efflorescence.

What is hardness test of brick?

Hardness Test on Bricks A good brick should resist scratches against sharp things. So, for this test a sharp tool or finger nail is used to make scratch on brick. If there is no scratch impression on brick then it is said to be hard brick.

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What is Hidden Beam or Concealed Beam | Advantages & Disadvantages


Conclusion:

Full article on What is Basic Knowledge of Brickwork | What is Brickwork | What is Brick Masonry | Characteristics of Bricks | Advantages of Brick Masonry | Types of Brick Masonry | Masonry Joints | Brick Closer | Orientation of Bricks | Tests of Bricks | Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry | Qualities of Good Bricks | Classification of Bricks. Thank you for the full reading of this article in “The Civil Engineering” platform in English. If you find this post helpful, then help others by sharing it on social media. If any formula of BBS is missing from this article please tell me in comments.

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